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prisms

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Sammatthews

Posts: 12

Joined: Wed Jan 04, 2017 12:29 am

Post Wed Jan 04, 2017 2:29 am

Re: prisms

I started noticing double vision and my eyes crossing about half a month ago. At first I thought it was temperory because I had fallen and hit my head during a game. I told my parents over the weekend. Today I had my appointment, and the doctor said I need glasses for nearsightedness and they will have base out prisms. I am so nervous about this. This is my first time getting glasses. The doctor said they should make my vision a little sharper especially for things further away and it should keep the douboe vision in check. Will the glasses straighten my eyes while I wear them? Will people be able to tell my eyes cross based on my glasses, like will they look different than other glasses that people with straight eyes wear?
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Cactus Jack

Posts: 172

Joined: Sat Sep 24, 2011 3:00 pm

Post Wed Jan 04, 2017 3:38 am

Re: prisms

Hi Sammatthews,

I assume that Sam is your given name.

I need to ask you a few questions. Many people have Base Out (BO) Prism in their glasses and how noticeable it is depends on your Prescription and a few other factors.
1. What is your complete Prescription?
2. What is your age?
3. Where do you live? (country)
4. May I as what sport you were playing when you fell?
5. Have you had any Science or Math courses in school?

Wearing glasses is no big deal, millions of people do. I sure understand how you can be nervous about getting glasses. Almost everyone is, but all that will happen is that your friends and relatives will comment and ask questions for about 2 days, after that, no one will pay any attention and the only comments you will get will be on those occasions when you don't wear your glasses.

The reason you are seeing double is that your eyes are turned inward slightly. When I get your prescription, I can help you understand better what the glasses do for you. Basically, Prism correction bends incoming light rays so your Eye Position Control System (EPCS) can fuse the two images. I have had double vision problems for many years and most people, who know me, are not aware that I have Base Out Prism in my glasses, but I sure notice the double vision, if I am not wearing my glasses.

I really look forward to hearing from you. I think I can help you understand how your vision and your glasses work. It is a fascinating subject.

Cactus
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Sammatthews

Posts: 12

Joined: Wed Jan 04, 2017 12:29 am

Post Wed Jan 04, 2017 4:23 am

Re: prisms

Cactus Jack,
Thank you so much for getting back to me. Here are the answers to your questions.
1. I am still a bit confused on what the numbers mean, but they are as follows; First row: -0.5, 6, out; second row: -0.75, 6, out.
2. I am 16 years old.
3. I play basketball and volleyball. I fell playing basketball.
4. I live in America.
5. I have taken all the math and science courses I had to take until middle school, and in the last two years of high school I have been taking biology, Algebra II, chemistry, and Pre-Calculus.
Another question that just hit me. Will I get to wear contacts? Will the glasses ckear up the double vision enough for me to still play?
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Cactus Jack

Posts: 172

Joined: Sat Sep 24, 2011 3:00 pm

Post Wed Jan 04, 2017 5:36 am

Re: prisms

Your glasses prescription, in standard format is:
OD (Right Eye): Sphere: -0.50, Cylinder and Axis (none), Prism: 6 Prism Diopters Base Out
OS (Left Eye): Sphere: - 0.75, Cylinder and Axis (none), Prism: 6 Prism Diopters Base Out

In plain English, you are slightly nearsighted in both eyes and your eyes are trying to turn inward or converge.

Corrective lenses are the opposite sign of your actual refractive error. A person who is nearsighted has, in effect, built in reading glasses, but in your case they are not very strong.

The most fundamental equations for optics were Codified by Sir Isaac Newton, of gravity and calculus fame, around 1700. He described the Principles of Optics and defined the Diopter of Lens Power and the Prism Diopter. The most fundamental equation in optics is as follows:

Lens Power in Diopters = 1 meter (100 cm, 1000 mm, or 39.37 inches) / Focal Distance in the same units of measure.

or its re-arrangement

Focal distance = 1 meter / Lens Power in Diopters.

-0.50 means that you cannot see clearly with your right eye beyond a distance of 2 meters
-0.75 means that you cannot see clearly with your left eye beyond a distance of 1.33 meters

A Prism Diopter is defined as that amount of Prism that will deflect a ray of light 1 cm at a distance of 1 meter. Essentially that is a Tangent function with a value of 0.01 the deflection angle is the Arctan function of 0.57 angular degrees per Prism Diopter. 6 Prism Diopters means that your eyes are trying to turn inward about 3.47 angular degrees each. You notice it as double vision, but the actual pupil displacement is so small that others can't see it. FYI, I am wearing 7 BO in each eye as I write this.

What others may notice is a bit or extra thickness in the outside edges of your glasses by about 3 mm. I know this might sound strange, but that might actually work to your initial benefit, in addition to helping you fuse the two images.

Sometimes people are concerned about people saying that you are wearing glasses that are "too weak". Frankly, that is a really dumb comment by someone who doesn't understand optics. No one has the right to dictate how bad your vision needs to be to justify vision correction. As I demonstrated above, without correction, even your low prescription significantly affects what you see. The prism correction will add a bit of thickness to your glasses and minimize dumb comments.

About playing basketball, you could correct your mild myopia with contact lenses, but contact lenses cannot supply Prism Correction. Right now you need glasses for that and you may want to consider sports goggles for basketball, they will correct your double vision and at the same time correct your myopia. The goggles have a retaining strap so you won't have to worry about them getting knocked off. They are almost un-breakable.

It is possible that your prescription will change some in the future and you may need a bit more prism.

I have a young acquaintance who needed substantially more prism correction than you do. He loves Soccer and he plays goalie wearing sports goggles. He tried it with regular glasses, but that is a rough position to play with regular glasses, they got broken a lot.

I hope this helps. Please don't hesitate to ask if you have more questions. I have a couple of other things I would like to discuss, but this is enough for now. When will you get your glasses?

Cactus
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Sammatthews

Posts: 12

Joined: Wed Jan 04, 2017 12:29 am

Post Wed Jan 04, 2017 4:02 pm

Re: prisms

Cactus Jack,
Thank you for the explination of my prescription. You have double vison and base out prisms too! How was it getting them and glasses your first time? Also, how is being crosseyed? Have you ever been made fun of or looked at weird because of your eyes or glasses? How did you end up with double vision? Sorry for all the questions. I don't think I have ever met or talked to anyone else with my problem. To answer your question, my glasses should be ready tomorrow. I am so nervous, it is basically going to be a life changing moment. I still have some questions. One is, when I will have my glasses on will my eyes be looking straight ahead, or will they still be crossed? Another is what will happen if someone tries on my glasses will it be bad for them because of the prisms? That is way more than enough for now. If the questions I asked about you are to personal, feel free to ignore them. It is just nice meeting someone who went through the same thing, and I think I got carried away. Anyways, thank you again for replying to my post and helping me.
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Cactus Jack

Posts: 172

Joined: Sat Sep 24, 2011 3:00 pm

Post Wed Jan 04, 2017 10:13 pm

Re: prisms

Sam,

“Life changing moment” may a bit of an overstatement. In some ways double vision is more annoying than blurry vision. If it is a life changing moment, it is a change for the better. Naturally, you are apprehensive and there may be some comments, but that won’t last long.

You didn’t ask any questions that I have a problem discussing. I am 79 and have worn glasses since I was 14. I started having double vision problems a little over 30 years ago. I developed what is called Adult Strabismus. Strabismus is a general medical term that means that your eyes have trouble pointing in the same direction and you cant keep images fused. Specifically, mine is called Esophoria, which basically means that I am slightly cross eyed, but with effort I can fuse the images. The problem is that I can’t keep them fused without my glasses for any length of time.

There are several types of Strabismus. Your eyes can be misaligned in both the horizontal direction and also in the vertical direction. Ours are in the horizontal direction and there are 4 types and the names are made up of two prefixes “Eso” and “Exo” and two suffixes “phoria” and “tropia”.
Eso means that your eyes want to converge or turn inward, corrected with Base Out (BO)prism. Exo means that your eyes want to diverge or turn outward, corrected with Base In (BI) prism. Phoria means that you can control your eye motion to some extent and can fuse images with effort. Tropia means that you can’t control the motion and may not be able to fuse the images without prisms or it is very hard to fuse the images. Those are not the exact medical definitions, but they are pretty close.

My Esophoria started developing slowly. Not suddenly as yours did. When I finally got glasses with 5 BO in each eye, I could not believe the comfort. The outside edges were a few mm thicker than before the prism, but I don't think anyone in the office noticed that I was slightly crosseyed. The amount of pupil displacement with up to about 10 BO is so small that it is very hard for anyone to tell that you are slightly crosseyed. Remember I was an adult and had worn fairly thick glasses for many years.

There were a few comments when I got glasses when I was 14, but by then many students wore glasses, so it was no big deal. You will need a lot more prism than 6 BO for anyone to notice that you are slightly cross eyed. Convergence is a normal function because your eyes have to converge for you to be able to focus on close things. BI prism is more noticeable, but you don’t have to worry about that.

Double vision can be caused by several things. It is often called Muscle Imbalance, but there can be other sources of double vision. There can be problems with the Cranial Nerves that control the Eye Positioning Muscles (there are 12 in 3 opposing pairs on each eye. There can also be problems in the Eye Position Control System in the brain.

With your glasses, your eyes will be slightly converged by about 3.5 angular degrees, each, but the prism will bend the light rays so the Central Axis of Vision from each eye is parallel when you are looking at distant objects.

This small amount of prism will not cause any problems for someone who tries on your glasses, but they may see double with them. I don’t think they will think that you are faking it about your need for glasses.

Could you tell me more about when you see double and if you are able to fuse the images?

Also, have you had any trig?

Cactus
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Sammatthews

Posts: 12

Joined: Wed Jan 04, 2017 12:29 am

Post Thu Jan 05, 2017 12:36 am

Re: prisms

It is hard to explain what I see. Basically it is like two of everything side by side. One is sort of see through, and the other is solid. Basically like what TV shows and movies show people seeing when they are dizzy or just hit their head, but with just two images not four or five. You know what I mean? Also, it is always there, I have tried to make it go away, but I cannot, unless I shut one eye. It is increasingly annoying and hard to deal with when reading or looking at a page with a lot of words because all of it overlaps and I cannot make out the letters without shutting my eye. There was some trig in my geometry class, and a little so far in pre-calc.
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Cactus Jack

Posts: 172

Joined: Sat Sep 24, 2011 3:00 pm

Post Thu Jan 05, 2017 1:38 am

Re: prisms

Sam,

I understand the problem. I have been there and experienced similar effects.

The reason I asked about trig and geometry involves ratio and proportion in analyzing why small amounts of prism are so hard for others to detect, but makes a big difference for you.

Recall the definition of a prism diopter. One prism diopter is that amount of prism that will deflect a ray of light 1 cm at a distance of 1 meter. You have 12 total diopters of Esophoria or Esotropia. That means that the two images are 12 cm apart at a distance of 1 meter, 24 cm apart at 2 meters etc. Now lets translate that back to the Pupils of your eyes and what someone else would see. In this case we will only deal with one eye at a time.

The center of rotation of your eyes is approximately the center of your eyeballs. The average eyeball is about 25 mm in diameter and the pupil sticks out just a bit from the surface of the sphere. To make the calculations easy lets say that the pupil is about 15 mm from the center of rotation. We could use drug to deal with the angular displacement of a prism diopter using trig functions, but it is easier to translate the displacement using ratio and proportion.

1 Prism diopter = 10 mm at a distance of 1000 mm (basic definition)

If we divide 1000 mm by 15 mm we get the ratio of 1 to 66.66 then if we divide the 10 mm by 66.66 we get the amount of displacement of the pupil as 0.15 mm per prism diopter. You will be wearing 6 diopters of prism so the displacement of your pupil will be approximately 0.15 x 6 = 0.9 mm. You probably won't be able to see it in a mirror and I seriously doubt anyone else could unless they were trained Eye Care Professionals using a technique where they cover and uncover the eye an look for a tiny twitch.

Don't sweat the really small stuff.

I think you are in for a very pleasant surprise when you get your glasses. Please let me know how they work for you.

Cactus
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Sammatthews

Posts: 12

Joined: Wed Jan 04, 2017 12:29 am

Post Thu Jan 05, 2017 7:56 pm

Re: prisms

Thank you for all of that! I just picked up my glasses about an hour ago. It is amazing! Oh how I have missed normal vision! I was so nervous and kind of sad, but I love these glasses! Still sad that I need them in order to see a single image because I just had to fall, but I am just glad that with glasses I can see great! The glasses look a bit funny compared to my friend's, but I could care less. I was getting sick and tierd of the doubke vision and headaches associated with it. I think I am going to keep these glasses on every waking minute. It is onay for me to read with nearsighted glasses, right?
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Cactus Jack

Posts: 172

Joined: Sat Sep 24, 2011 3:00 pm

Post Thu Jan 05, 2017 9:08 pm

Re: prisms

Hi Sam,

I am delighted to hear that you like your glasses. I thought you would. You really should wear them all the time, including for reading.

The glasses should help with problem you described about having difficulty dealing with two overlapping text images. It is often tempting for a person, who is mildly nearsighted, to not wear their glasses for reading. The problem with that is that a person who is mildly nearsighted has, in effect, built in reading glasses. Having part of their work done means that your focusing muscles don't get enough exercise and that lets them get weak. Reading while wearing your glasses will help keep your Ciliary Muscles in condition. We don't really know how long you have been mildly nearsighted and your Ciliary Muscles may be slightly out of condition. It may be a few days before you get your Ciliary Muscles up to speed and used to doing their full job.

Not wearing needed vision correction can cause real problems. Some years ago, there was a post on Eye Scene by a 17 year old in Greece who had just received his first prescription of about -3.50. He discovered that he could not see is computer monitor or read with his glasses and asked for help. I suggested that his Ciliary Muscles were so out of condition from dis-use that they had forgotten how to focus close. I suggested that he go back to his ECP and explain the problem. He wound up needing trifocals so he could function with his glasses. Typically, what happens is that a young person can grow out of a need for bifocals or trifocals, but it takes a while for the complete "Auto-Focus" system to learn how to do its job again.

Did your ECP offer any comments or suggestions about what to expect in the future? Frequently, ECPs do not prescribe full prism correction in a first prescription. Many ECPs are trained to only prescribe 1/2 the prism they measure. The way the Eye Position Control System (EPCS) works is that sometimes it only needs some external prism help to get the two images into "capture range". Once that is done with the help of the prisms, the EPCS will take over and adjust the eye positions to fuse the images together.

My background is Electronics and Computers and I find how the EPCS works to be a fascinating biological Open Loop Servo System.

I want ask you a few more questions about your fall and the development of double vision afterward, when it is convenient.

I will be interested in hearing what your family and friends say about your glasses.

BTW, the ONLY person who has the right to decide when you wear your glasses is YOU. What others think or say, does not mater, period.

Also, it may be tempting to get back to playing basketball. It sure won't hurt to shoot some basket and become used to your different vision, but I urge you to not get involved in active play until you get some sports glasses and we chat some more the events after your fall. You may need a doctors clearance before playing any sport where another fall might be likely.

Cactus
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Sammatthews

Posts: 12

Joined: Wed Jan 04, 2017 12:29 am

Post Thu Jan 05, 2017 11:26 pm

Re: prisms

Trust me I am wearing these glasses all the time! I do not want to be without them. I am not sure about if the doctor gave me half my needed prisms or not, but I have to go back in 6 months. My friends seem to like my glasses. A couple just asked if I was going to wear them ot get contacts, and then were concerened about how I would play with glasses on. What do you want to know about the fall? Also, where exactly do I get sports glasses?
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Cactus Jack

Posts: 172

Joined: Sat Sep 24, 2011 3:00 pm

Post Fri Jan 06, 2017 2:26 am

Re: prisms

Hi Sam,

I think you may have changed your mind about wearing glasses. Welcome to the world of good vision. Kind of neat, isn't it. How do you like the sharpness of the fused images?

Falls and injuries in basketball are not very common. That is why helmets or head protection is not required, as it is in American Football. Usually, basketball injuries are broken bones or skins or scrapes where a body part hit the floor at speed and rub a raw spot.

Here are some questions related to the fall, in no particular order:

1. Do you remember much about what caused you to fall and the fall itself?
2. Did you hit your head on the floor?
3. If so, what part of your head hit the floor?
4. Did it knock you unconscious or were you just dazed?
5. How long after your fall did you start having trouble with double vision?
6. Have you been checked for possible concussion?

Some other general questions:

7. Prior to the fall, do you ever recall any occasion where you had double vision, no mater how brief it was?
8. If so, do you recall the circumstances such as being very tired, or in low light?
9. Are you having any trouble keeping images fused when you are reading?
10. When you look up after reading a lot, are distant objects fused?
11. What is your preferred reading distance? IOW how close to you like to hold a book to read comfortably with your glasses? You probably have not had much time to do that.
12. If you move a book very close to your eyes, do you break fusion? If so, at what distance?

That is enough for now. I am impressed with your maturity and willingness to address problems, solve them and the quickly adapt to the changed circumstances.

Cactus
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Sammatthews

Posts: 12

Joined: Wed Jan 04, 2017 12:29 am

Post Fri Jan 06, 2017 3:41 am

Re: prisms

1.I do remember some of it, and the rest is what I was told.
2.Yes, and I got hit on the head by the ball once before hitting the ground and once as I was in the ground.
3.The back-right side.
4.I was unconscious for some time.
5.I noticed it when I woke up, and then it went away for the rest of that day and it returned the next day, and has stayed since.
6.Yes, I had a mild concussion
7. No
8. N/A
9. I have not really had time to do any close reading. Will let you know later.
10. Again, have not done any reading, and will let you know later.
11. Have not had time to do so.
12. Have not had time to do so.
Sorry for not being able to answer all the questions.
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Cactus Jack

Posts: 172

Joined: Sat Sep 24, 2011 3:00 pm

Post Fri Jan 06, 2017 4:14 am

Re: prisms

Thanks Sam,

Don't sweat the small stuff. You are doing great. The answers you gave were not surprising. I have suspected something like that. The answers to the other questions can wait until it is convenient.

Sports goggles / glasses are not hard to get. You may even be able to get some pretty inexpensive ones on line. I will look into it. I have a couple more suggestions, but those can wait also. I want you to get used to seeing very well again.

As I said before, it can't hurt to practice shooting some hoops to re-develop some shooting skills because that involves developing good Eye / Hand coordination. I would strongly urge you to not participate in any game action or activity where you could experience another blow to the head. The brain has incredible powers to heal and re-program areas of the brain to take over from some traumas, but it takes time and effort. There is a possibility that your requirement for prism may increase, but there is also the possibility that you can do some easy Visual Training, that may speed the healing and re-programming process. The important thing is to not subject your brain to any additional trauma, if at all possible.

Even the small myopia correction in your glasses will help the process. Having very sharp images to work with helps the Eye Position Control System do its job and makes any therapy or visual activity more effective. We can discuss more about this later.

You may have said when the fall occurred, but I don't recall you having mentioned it. When did it occur?

Cactus
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Sammatthews

Posts: 12

Joined: Wed Jan 04, 2017 12:29 am

Post Fri Jan 06, 2017 5:57 am

Re: prisms

It happened about half a month ago on the 14th of December.
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Cactus Jack

Posts: 172

Joined: Sat Sep 24, 2011 3:00 pm

Post Sat Jan 07, 2017 8:33 pm

Re: prisms

Hi Sam,

I hope all is still going well with your new glasses. Have you found my comments about what others see and you see when you are wearing your glasses to be pretty close to your actual experience?

A couple of more questions.

1. Did you mention the double vision to the doctors who you saw after the blow to your head? If you did, did they offer any opinions about what might happen in the future? Have any of the medical professionals mentioned anything about Therapy?

2. Would you be interested in a fairly simple test that you can do, to estimate the actual magnitude of your double vision problem?

Cactus
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Sammatthews

Posts: 12

Joined: Wed Jan 04, 2017 12:29 am

Post Sun Jan 08, 2017 10:41 pm

Re: prisms

1. No, it had gone away temorarily then, and I thought it was gone for good. No one has mentioned any kind if therapy.
2. Sure.
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Brian

Posts: 35

Joined: Thu Nov 10, 2011 6:12 pm

Post Mon Jan 09, 2017 5:51 pm

Re: prisms

Sam, I would definitely get with your regular doctor on your issue. It sounds like your double vision is being caused by a head injury and not a muscle problem. I have an eye muscle issue and was started at 2BI prism in each eye and am now at 6BI in each eye. In your case it appears that head injury is causing your issues and 6 Prism in each eye is a lot to start out with... So I would recommend getting with your regular doctor and addressing the issue there.
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Cactus Jack

Posts: 172

Joined: Sat Sep 24, 2011 3:00 pm

Post Mon Jan 09, 2017 6:53 pm

Re: prisms

Sam,

Brian is right. I really think you need to see your family doctor, if you have one, or the doctor who saw you after you hit your head. You may be referred to a doctor who specializes in head injuries. There are several causes of double vision. Muscle problems are the most common, but I believe this is NOT a muscle problem. You need to find out the cause, the prognosis, and the risk of activities where you could experience other head injuries.

You may be temped to ignore the problem, please don't. At some point it may be suggested that you also see a Pediatric Ophthalmologist. I know the title sounds strange, but they specialize in eye misalignment in people of all ages and can advise you if therapy is a good option. Right now, your glasses are only a "Band Aid" to let you see normally again. The need for prism correction could be temporary or it could be permanent, it depends on the actual cause. You really need to find out what it is.

The doctor may order an MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) or other test to get a better idea of what is actually going on. MRI machines are very noisy, but otherwise the test is painless. It takes 20 to 30 minutes and you just like comfortably while it does its thing. They are amazing devices that lets the doctor see what is going on inside your body.

You are approaching adulthood and one of the responsibilities is to see to your your own health needs. Sometime the decisions are tough, but you HAVE to make them. About 18 years ago I had to make a very tough decision to have surgery on my heart, to bypass some clogged arteries, one was 96% blocked. The problem was caught on a stress test, before I had a heart attack. I was given a choice between blood thinners or heart surgery. I opted for the heart surgery. I have never regretted the decision.

Please let us know what you decide to do and the results.

Cactus
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Cactus Jack

Posts: 172

Joined: Sat Sep 24, 2011 3:00 pm

Post Tue Jan 10, 2017 12:41 am

Simple Prism Test

This is a repost of the Simple Prism Test that was originally posted several years ago. It has become hard to find because there are so many posts on the Prisms thread.

SIMPLE PRISM TEST

It is not hard to measure the amount of prism it would take for full correction. All it takes is some adding machine or cash register tape, a marking pen, some painters or masking tape (ideally with very weak "stick-um" for easy removal) and something to measure distances.

It is a little easier to work with metric measurements, but you can do it also with inches and feet. You just have to do a little more math for conversions between the two.

This test is based on the definition of 1 prism diopter as: "That amount of prism that will deflect a ray of light 1 cm at a distance of 1 meter (100 cm)".

Ideally, this test is done without any prism correction in your glasses, but you need to be able to see some calibration marks on the adding machine tape with reasonable clarity. If you can't see the marks without glasses, you can still do the test, but you must account for the prism in the glasses.

1. Select a fairly blank wall that you can attach the calibrated adding machine tape to, using the painters or masking tape.

2. Decide where you will stand or sit while doing the test. Between 3 and 4 meters or 10 and 14 feet works best. Measure the distance from that location to the wall selected in Step 1.

3. Calculate how much displacement 1 prism diopter represents at the distance measured in Step 2.

4. Using the marker, mark the adding machine tape with major divisions 5x the distance calculated in Step 3 and optional minor tick marks at 1 prism diopter intervals. The marks need to be big enough to see easily from the distance in Step 2. You might want to identify the major divisions as 0, 5, 10 etc. Note: Some large bold markers will bleed through the adding machine tape and permanently mark the surface you are using as temporary backing for the adding machine tape. Test and take appropriate precautions to prevent damage by the marker ink.

5. Attach the adding machine tape, stretched out horizontally, to the wall selected in Step 1.

6. On another short piece of adding machine tape mark an arrow lengthwise and attach that piece of tape to the wall, vertically, so the arrow is pointing at 0.
You are ready to do the test.

7 Place yourself at the location selected in Step 2, let your eyes relax so you see double and note where the "0" arrow appears to point in the displaced image. Try this test several times during the day and at varying degrees of fatigue. Make a note of your results.

8. If you are wearing glasses with prism, adjust the readings in Step 7 for the total prism in the glasses.

This test will work with horizontal prism (Base Out or Base In) or vertical prism (Base Up or Base Down) by the placement of the long tape and short tape. Often both horizontal and vertical prism exist at the same time.

Note: It is sometimes difficult, if small amounts of prism are involved, to tell if the prism correction needs to be Base Out or In, Up or Down. You may be able to tell by noticing which way the images are displaced when you block the eyes alternately. For example, if you cover the right eye and the image from the left eye is on the left, you probably need more Base Out.

Please Let me know if you have any questions and if this works for you.
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